Gandhi A Biography for Children and Beginners | Complete Book OnlineOctober 2, marks the beginning of the th birth anniversary year of M. Throughout the nationalist struggle in the first half of the 20th century, Gandhi played the most significant role in securing Indian independence from the British Empire. The Partition of at the time of decolonization displaced millions of people and rendered them refugees overnight on both sides of the newly-created national boundaries. It caused more loss of life and property, more displacement, more separation of families, more population transfer and a greater demographic transformation of major cities in the South Asian subcontinent, than the Holocaust in Europe during World War II. Gandhi was morally opposed to Partition and deeply anguished by the large-scale communal violence between Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs, which undermined and contradicted his lifelong commitment to non-violent resistance against colonialism and imperialism. Yet, he was assassinated by a Hindu extremist on January 30, , in New Delhi, as he walked towards his daily public multi-faith prayer meeting that evening.
Mahatma Gandhi was responsible for partition of India - Anil Vij
The ill-fated battle for Indian independence
The partition of India was one of the great humanitarian disasters of the 20th century, the massacre of perhaps half a million people, a number that seems all the more terrible because it had been preceded by a liberation campaign that stressed non-violence, and it followed a peaceful transfer of authority by the British. Narendra Singh Sarila, a former ADC to Lord Mountbatten and a senior Indian civil servant of penetrating intelligence, shines a light on the diplomatic world of hints, pressures and concealed motives on the route to partition that he has uncovered through painstaking research in archives in the USA and Britain. A refreshing number of his sources have the feel of the recently released or long-hidden about them. This story has been told as a tale of heroes Nehru and Gandhi and villains Jinnah and Churchill , but Sarila presents it as a series of blunders: by Nehru and the Congress Party, mainly, for relinquishing their political control over the majority of the country in a petulant refusal to join with the British in the war effort in ; and for their rejection of the British offer of eventual self-government in Every retreat they made was an advance for Jinnah and the Muslim League, which at the start of the war did not represent even a quarter of Muslim voters yet was able to demand the partition of the nation on religious lines at the end of it.
British Broadcasting Corporation Home. What issues were left unresolved at the time of India's partition in , and how have they continued to plague both India and Pakistan since independence? India and Pakistan won independence in August , following a nationalist struggle lasting nearly three decades. It set a vital precedent for the negotiated winding up of European empires elsewhere. Unfortunately, it was accompanied by the largest mass migration in human history of some 10 million. As many as one million civilians died in the accompanying riots and local-level fighting, particularly in the western region of Punjab which was cut in two by the border.
University Lahore. He also did Master in Modern History from G. He has produced six international papers on the important issues. The book under review can be viewed as significant as having been based on a novel perspective of partition of India to some extent. The author skillfully deviates from the traditional view point about partition in the light of empirical research. The division of the book into three main chapters and further into sub-chapters better serves the motive of supporting the argument of the author. The author first presents the background of the Hindu-Muslim communal rift in post British India and comes up with an argument that the communal rift would have never been widened, if leaders like Gandhi had co-operated in terms of the share of power with Muslims and other minorities.
The Final Years
Jump to navigation. When the All-India Muslim League was established in Dhaka in by leading Muslim figures from around the country, India had just begun to slowly transition to self-rule from the British Raj. Its initial strategy was to use the demographic weight of the Muslim-majority provinces in northwestern and eastern India, particularly the two large provinces of Punjab and Bengal, to secure larger Muslim representation in the legislature, in the executive branch, and in public services in minority provinces, where Muslims were most in need of protection. In the end, the partition of India, which the Muslim League later advocated, accomplished exactly the opposite. The separation cut away the Muslim-majority provinces from the rest of India, leaving Muslims in the minority provinces far more vulnerable to the will of the Hindu majority. Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan and the leader of the Muslim League in its final phase, is often assumed to have been the one who brought about partition.
By Mailonline India and Afp. Pakistani high school student Noman Afzal knows everything about how 'traitorous' Hindus are to blame for the bloodshed that erupted when British India split into two nations 70 years ago. Students across the border in India are taught a starkly different version of events, the result of a decades-long effort by the nuclear-armed rivals to shape and control history to their own nationalistic narrative. August marks 70 years since the subcontinent was divided into two independent states - Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan - and millions were uprooted in one of the largest mass migrations in history. The official unwillingness to confront the bitter legacy of Partition - and the skewed portrayals being peddled in classrooms from New Delhi to Karachi - is hindering any hope of reconciliation between the arch-rivals, experts say.
He had been sent to India with a specific mandate to find a solution and implement it before the end of June The Muslim League had decided to boycott the Constituent Assembly. The new Viceroy wanted to seek Gandhi's advice before he came to his own assessment. Gandhi told him that the best course would be to ask Jinnah to take over as Prime Minister and run the affairs of the country. If Jinnah declined, the Congress should be asked to shoulder the responsibility. Gandhi thought that his proposal would ensure the survival of a United India, and there would be no partition. The Viceroy was baffled, Jinnah said it was too good to be true.